An insurgency in nigeria by the islamist extremist group boko haram has left thousands dead, shaken africas biggest country and worried the world. Refer to the arabic language islamic and african studies journal alqiraat, rabi alakhir. Boko haram and the return of the nigerian slave trade the islamic militants who kidnapped 276 schoolgirls are carrying on a long tradition of brutality in their country may 11, 2014, 9. The boko haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist group boko haram started an armed rebellion against the government of nigeria. Oct 22, 2015 in addition to continued attacks in nigeria, it has intensified violence in neighboring countries, carrying out regular bombings and massacres. Scott baldauf breaks down the groups origins, funding, and possible ties to al qaeda. In nigeria, fragile hopes of boko haram freeing schoolgirls are dashed dec. Examining the boko haram insurgency in northern nigeria and the quest for a permanent resolution of the crisis joseph olukayode akinbi ph. Project topic on the socioeconomic implications of the boko. After the nigeria army reported reaching a ceasefire with the militant islamist group boko haram two weeks. Jamaatu ahlis sunna liddaawati waljihad, better known as boko haram, is the most violent phenomenon of the nigerian fourth republic.
Providing deeper information on the origin and growth of the sect, it also examines. Mar 30, 2016 smith has written a short but very informative book on the horrible subject matter concerning boko haram. Nigerias economy suffered when attacks held by the boko haram began on local businesses, government. The impact of boko haram insurgency on nigerian national. Colonialism is a major feature of the economic history of nigeria.
Nov 24, 2016 nigeria s militant islamist group boko haram which has caused havoc in africas most populous country through a wave of bombings, assassinations and abductions is fighting to overthrow the. Border security, trade and economic collaboration between nigeria and cameroon. Nigeria declared a war against boko haram with a fullscale military campaign in 20, and was joined by cameroon in. That is why boko haram is said to have infiltrated all stra ta of northern. Pdf the nexus between causes of boko haram and its effect. In the checklist of nigerias security challenges, the boko haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Maiduguri, the capital of the state of borno in nigeria, is boko harams current base of operations. Boko haram represents a grave threat to nigeria s history, surely one of its greatest riches.
The insurgency of boko haram, which started as a weak, disorganised, loosely coordinated and inchoate movement, mutated to pose serious threats to national security. In as much as poverty is acclaimed to be major cause of boko haram, its progenitors capitalized on it to fan the embers of its recruitment thereby deriding nigerias economy. Cambridge core african studies salafism in nigeria by alexander. Meaning of boko haram is subtler than media portrayal 6. Boko haram, the militant islamist group, has made a mockery of peace and security in nigeria, and its threat to regional security is wellknown. According to liolio 20, the successful recruitment of the people into the group. White missionaries meeting a medicine man with his trained hyena in pategi, c. Jun 09, 2016 boko haram seeks to emulate the precedent set by uthman dan fodio and unite all the muslims of nigeria under their boko haram banner. A young girl who fled boko harams campaign of violence in northern nigeria now lives in a unhcrsupported refugee settlement in tillaberi, west of niamey, niger. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks.
Inside nigerias unholy war is by no means an instant book. Founded in 2002 by mohammed yusuf, an orthodox islamist proselyte, the boko haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the nigerian state. In nigeria, boko haram wa s responsible for more than 80 percent of all terrorist attacks between 1970 and 201 3 for which a perpetrator group was identified, despite their relatively recent onset of violence in 2009. Understanding the intensity of boko harams terrorism. Direct trade with europe started from the fifteenth century. The bbc looks at the militant islamist group boko haram, which is fighting to overthrow the nigerian government and create an islamic state in parts of west. The boko haram insurgence in nigeria perspectives from within. When boko haram was founded in the early 2000s, the aim of its leaders was to establish a taliban like government independent from. On many occasions in recent decades, nigeria seemed to have reached a crisis point in which a major rethink of its federal structure seemed unavoidable. The effects of boko haram insurgency on business and trade. It would be the latest in a series of groups to swear. Although we have evidence of repression, we also have evidence of longsurviving heterodoxy and alternative forms of belief and practice in nigeria. The boko haram and nigerian jihadism peace palace library.
It is the regional military collaboration in the campaign against the militant group. Nigeria and boko haram violent activities, with focus on years of 20022016, when boko haram was operatively active. Boko haram began a military campaign to impose islamic rule in northern nigeria in 2009. Options and strategies in the boko haram conflict in nigeria. Nigerias struggles with a conflict more dangerous than. The book is well written and reflects the authors deep familiarity with nigeria, making it a valuable contribution to the literature on boko haram. The problem is nothing less than the current state of nigeria and the way it is being robbed dailycertainly of its riches, but more importantly, of its dignity. The intersection of chinas commercial interests and nigerias. Transsaharan trade signaled the beginning of the end of the borno empire. These descriptions provide only a fractional view of the human tragedy suffered in nigeria since the advent of bhrelated violence.
With boko harams northern insurgency concentrating where agricultural activity is highest, nigerias national government is becoming increasingly concerned with threats to food security. The attacks this year have been incessant and brutal. Nigerias vibrant popular culture reflects great changes in inherited traditions and adaptations of imported ones. The paper attempts to shift from descriptive explanation of the group functioning and instead to evaluate broader conditions and situation in nigeria which can clarify the root sources of the violence nigeria is witnessing. D department of history, adeyemi federal university of education p.
Popular nigeria books meet your next favorite book. Boko haram insurgency 1 briefing note 20 january 2014 nigeria. Behind the headlines prepared may 22, 2014 contents. Boko haram and the return of the nigerian slave trade.
Us strategy against boko haram could backfire al jazeera. When boko haram was founded in the early 2000s, the aim of its leaders was to establish a taliban like government independent from the nigerian government. In northeastern nigeria, violence perpetrated by the terrorist group boko. The conflict takes place within the context of longstanding issues of religious violence between nigeria s muslim and christian communities, and the insurgents ultimate aim is to establish an islamic state in the region. Nashatuh, mabadiuh wa am luh fi naygeeriyah the boko haram group in nigeria. May 21, 2014 these mechanisms, however, have not worked in the case of boko haram which is beyond the reach of nigerias usual methods for curbing violent protests and armed insurgencies. Over the past five years, the nigerian government has kept mostly closed borders with cameroon, chad, and niger.
In july 2014, boko haram, which had previously relied primarily on hitandrun attacks against government and civilian targets, launched a territorial offensive in northeast nigeria. Part one deals with the introduction while the second part focuses on interrogating the emergence of boko haram in nigeria. Book the predictable rise of boko haram in november 2015 a report released by the sydneybased institute for economics and peace iep stated a somehow unexpected truth. Mar 07, 2015 boko haram began a military campaign to impose islamic rule in northern nigeria in 2009. It is against this background that the paper tends to investigate the boko haram insurgency in northern nigeria and underscore the urgent need for a permanent resolution of the crisis. Likewise, deaths from boko harams attacks represented nearly 70 percent of all fatalities from terrorist attacks in nigeria.
After the nigeria army reported reaching a ceasefire with. Earlier, boko haram hit the headquarters of the united nations in abuja, nigerias federal capital, in a suicide attack, leaving at least 23 people killed and more than 80 injured. Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. The state of insecurity engendered by boko haram insurgency in nigeria. When talking about fundamentalism in nigeria, the focus most often rests on jamaatu ahlis sunnah lidaawati wal jihad jas, commonly known as boko haram. Pdf the nexus between causes of boko haram and its. Americanah by chimamanda ngozi adichie, things fall apart by chinua achebe, half of a yellow sun by chimamanda ngozi adichie, p. In the last month well over 100 people across three states have been killed by suspected nomadic herders, largely from the northern fulani ethnicity and muslim. On august 1011, an attack on a mosque in the state of maiduguri left 56 people dead boko haram is largely believed to have been responsible. Chad is hosting 10,000 n displaced to diffa region in niger.
The menace of boko haram and fundamentalism in nigeria. As well as analyzing by sector and by trade measure, the reports also look into the cou. Hotels and nightclubs are part of the landscape of the larger cities. May 11, 2014 boko haram and the return of the nigerian slave trade. Boko harams insurgency is fuelled by nigerias history, geopolitical structure, ethnoreligious composition and socioeconomic disparities udounwa 20. The conflict has since spread to neighbouring states. The impact of boko haram insurgency on nigerian national security. Jan 30, 2020 a young girl who fled boko harams campaign of violence in northern nigeria now lives in a unhcrsupported refugee settlement in tillaberi, west of niamey, niger. Boko haram and its economic consequences fair observer. Nigerias militant islamist group boko haram which has caused havoc in africas most populous country through a wave of bombings, assassinations and abductions. Over the last year, the threat of the boko haram insurgency in northern nigeria has gradually waned, yet a more deadly and farreaching conflict has emerged. Nigeria declared a war against boko haram with a fullscale military campaign in 20, and was joined by cameroon in 2014 as well as niger republic and chad in 2015. Another factor remains significant on the decline of boko haram.
This book is just as much about the wacky religious beliefs of these islamish wannabe throwbacks who eschew western education and things like medical care unless they get shot as it is about the dire economic and social situation in nigeria. Richard joseph is the john evans professor of international history and politics at northwestern university. Jan 30, 2015 a perfectly sound if frenetic look at the sheer assholery of boko haram. Boko harams movement of grassroots anger is attributed to northern nigeria s continuing deprivation and poverty, and some of the worst maternal and infant mortality rates in the world far worse than rest of nigeria.
Boko haram and international law johnmark iyi springer. In 2014 it was boko haram, and not the dreaded islamic state or al qaeda, the deadliest terrorist group in the world. Although its contemporary definition now encompasses asymmetric warfare, it still has some generally accepted characteristics. Borno is now among the poorest states in nigeria, but in the th century kanemborno was one of the most extensive kingdoms in subsaharan africa. During this time, islamic institutions and practice put down roots in the region. Establishments serving alcoholic beverages are found everywhere except where islamic laws prohibit them. Shekaus effort to align boko haram with the islamic state comes at a time when both groups are under increasing international military pressure. Jas was responsible for the highest number of deaths related to terrorism in 2014, with nigeria seeing the most fatalities worldwide after iraq. Cameroons military campaign against the boko haram insurgency started late but has met with partial success. The nigerian boko haram has recently 20 been listed by the united states among the. One of these is the observance of established rules of engagement. Nigerias boko haram pledges allegiance to islamic state. Africa nigeria the world factbook central intelligence. Long before boko haram, dissenters were driven to the.
To consolidate gains and bring lasting peace to the far north, the government must now shift to longterm socioeconomic development, countering religious radicalism and reinforcing public services. The insurgency in nigeria began as a dissident religious sects. Boko haram seeks to emulate the precedent set by uthman dan fodio and unite all the muslims of nigeria under their boko haram banner. Dec 11, 2014 in nigeria, fragile hopes of boko haram freeing schoolgirls are dashed dec.
Perspectives on terrorism a rich scholarly engagement on the subject which even nonacademic readers will find interesting. It is responsible not only for a regional food crisis that has devolved into famine in some areas, but also the displacement of millions and the deaths of tens of thousands of people. Boko harams movement of grassroots anger is attributed to northern nigerias continuing deprivation and poverty, and some of the worst maternal and infant mortality rates in the world. The information has been carefully selected and compiled from unhcrs global network of field. The conflict takes place within the context of longstanding issues of religious violence between nigerias muslim and christian communities, and the insurgents ultimate aim is to establish an islamic state in the region. Mailing address counterpunch po box 228 petrolia, ca 95558 telephone 1707 6293683. Mar 27, 2020 refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. Boko haram and the nigerian state crisis democracy in africa. This book focuses extensively on the boko haram insurgence in nigeria. This book is the first to focus on the military nature of boko haram, the reasons for its success in those specific regions of the chad basin it operates in and a detailed history of the nigerian armys counterinsurgency with whom, uniquely, the author has spent research time. In this blog, originally posted on africa in focus, richard joseph argues that the resolution to the ongoing conflict between the government and boko haram will not be solved by better intelligence, but with the emergence of a credible, democratic state. A perfectly sound if frenetic look at the sheer assholery of boko haram. In addition to continued attacks in nigeria, it has intensified violence in neighboring countries, carrying out regular bombings and massacres. This book focuses on boko haram and terrorism in nigeria, framing the conflict in an international law context.42 151 988 615 21 219 306 885 1281 347 1313 1375 788 471 1281 1488 122 911 1524 1060 1004 1436 608 72 1077 826 1420 418 709 1125 1149 897 1415